Alexandria was again ruined in 115 CE in the Kitos War and was again restored, this time by the Emperor Hadrian, who, as a man of learning, took great interest in Alexandria. Sheikh Yakut was another great man. What to Eat in Alexandria, Egypt – The Best Egyptian Food in Egypt! English schools in Alexandria are becoming the most popular. The Serapeum, which stood for ancient tradition, conflicted with the rise of Christianity. With Youssra, Youssef Chahine, Hussein Fahmy, Amr Abdulgalil. The Romans had cranes but they were not strong enough to lift something this heavy. It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt. $ 107. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy Cleomenes continued the expansion. Tour to Pyramids, Egyptian Museum and Citadel. The library was part o a museum, which included a garden, a common dining room Abu Abbas was the author of the Hizb El Bahr and was famous for piety and miracles. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. [53], The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2002, near the site of the old Library. The library, begun under Ptolemy I (305-285 BCE) was completed by Ptolemy II (285-246 BCE) who sent invitations to rulers and scholars asking them to contribute books. [10] From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major centre of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centres in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Start and end in Cairo! In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Alexandria has four ports; namely the Western Port also known as(Alexandria Port), which is the main port of the country that handles about 60% of the country's exports and imports, Dekhela Port west of the Western Port, the Eastern Port which is a yachting harbour, and Abu Qir Port at the northern east of the governorate. Alexandria attracted scholars, scientists, philosophers, mathematicians, artists, & historians. Following the Battle of Pharsalus, however, at which Caesar defeated Pompey, Pompey fled to Alexandria seeking sanctuary and was killed by the co-regent Ptolemy XIII. It took 12 years to complete and served as a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world. Alexandria is the base of the Salafi movements in Egypt. The average annual rainfall is around 200 mm (7.9 in) but has been as high as 417 mm (16.4 in)[33]. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. It was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria, along with Naucratis and Heracleion. The city has magnificent public precincts and royal palaces which cover a fourth or even a third of the entire area. Recommended Books. Nearby, immense catacombs and columbaria have been opened which may have been appendages of the temple. The German excavation team found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets in the north-east of the city, but little else. Full-Day Tour To Alexandria From Cairo (Exclusive ) (From $91.42) Top Rated Private Customizable Day Tour to Alexandria from Cairo (From $160.00) Giza Pyramids (From $74.29) 7-Days in Cairo's Hottest Sites (From $600.00) See all Alexandria National Museum experiences on Tripadvisor A luxury light blue tram car operates from San Stefano to Ras El Tin, with free WiFi and movies and songs played inside for 5 L.E per ticket. The commuter line's locomotives operate on diesel, as opposed to the overhead-electric tram. The catacombs were long forgotten by the citizens until they were discovered by accident in 1900.[43]. The city was named after Alexander the Great, who founded it around 334 BC during his epic conquests. (2018, May 02). Cairo. The network begins at the El Raml district in the west and ends in the Victoria district in the east. - Elizabeth Cox, Religious strife increases between Christians and other faiths in, Christian Patriarch Theophilus destroys pagan temples in, The Death of the Classical World by Mangasarian, The Rise and Fall of Alexandria: Birthplace of the Modern World, The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt 300 B.C.--A.D. The most important Coptic Orthodox churches in Alexandria include Pope Cyril I Church in Cleopatra, Saint Georges Church in Sporting, Saint Mark & Pope Peter I Church in Sidi Bishr, Saint Mary Church in Assafra, Saint Mary Church in Gianaclis, Saint Mina Church in Fleming, Saint Mina Church in Mandara and Saint Takla Haymanot's Church in Ibrahimeya. As a reaction to the establishment of French religious institutions, a secular (laic) mission established Lycée el-Horreya, which initially followed a French system of education, but is currently a public school run by the Egyptian government. As the rest of Egypt's northern coast, the prevailing north wind, blowing across the Mediterranean, gives the city a less severe climate from the desert hinterland. It formed part of the research institute at Alexandria in Egypt that is known as the Alexandrian Museum (Mouseion, “shrine of the Muses ”). The forces of the Christian Byzantines and the Muslim Arabs then fought for control of the city, and Egypt, until the Arabian forces prevailed in 646 CE and Egypt fell under Islamic rule. The Kom el shoqafa Catacombs are considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages and date back to the 2nd century. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Scholars who argue against Julius Caesar’s role in the burning of the great library point to the fact that there is evidence it was still extant under the reign of Augustus and that visitors were still attracted to the city as a seat of learning. Alexandria grew rapidly to become an important centre of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for almost 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo). Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national history. The slide show is accompanied by a song by Fairouz "Shat Al Eskenderya". Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. Written by Joshua J. El Iskandriyah. Web. Route 6 starts at Sidi Gaber El Sheikh in the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. Jews settled in Alexandria at the beginning of the third century B.C.E. Every book found was taken to the Library where it was decided whether to give it back or confiscate it and replace it with a copy” (230). No one knows for sure if the scrolls were in the library when the fire broke out. [9] Just east of Alexandria (where Abu Qir Bay is now), there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. The Royal Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. The child influences the parent, of whom it is the offspring; language affects thought, of which, originally, it was but the tool. That disaster, which may have killed 50,000 people in Alexandria alone, ushered in a two-century period of seismic activity and rising sea levels that radically altered the Egyptian coastline. Alexandria Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Alexandria, Egypt. Gold Octadrachm of Ptolemy II & Arsinöe II. During a hunger strike by Egyptian film industry, Yehia, famous Egyptian director, finds himself obsessed with Amir, the leading man in one of … The only school in Alexandria that completely follows the French educational system is Lycée Français d'Alexandrie (École Champollion). The Italian school is the Istituto "Don Bosco". This followed two experiments to erect smaller obelisks and two failed attempts to erect a 25-ton obelisk. French troops stormed the city on 2 July 1798, and it remained in their hands until the arrival of a British expedition in 1801. Cairo-Alexandria Agriculture Road (Alexandria –, This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 14:06. There is evidence to prove that sacred animals were worshiped there. Ibn Battuta left Alexandria with the intent of visiting him. Most of the items were bought but other means were sometimes used. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour and the rest has been built over in modern times. You capture Alexandria so well and seeing you enjoy the many places that I grew up going to is so heartwarming! Archaeologists found an animal necropolis near the temple. The Egyptian city of Alexandria, home to one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, may have been built to align with the rising sun on the day of Alexander the Great's birth, a new study finds. Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural centre of the ancient Mediterranean world for much of the Hellenistic age and late antiquity. The city became his base of operations over the next thirteen years until he and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian Caesar at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. The library of Alexandria was completed by Ptolemy II (285-246 BCE) who sent invitations to rulers and scholars asking them to contribute books. It became, in time, the home of a wonderful library and schools of philosophy, representing all the phases and the most delicate shades of thought. John Baines, "Possible implications of the Egyptian word for Alexandria", O'Connor, Lauren (2009) "The Remains of Alexander the Great: The God, The King, The Symbol,". [46] The spaces that are most open are the low grounds to northeast and southwest, where it is practically impossible to get below the Roman strata. A video, […] Excavations were performed in the city by Greeks seeking the tomb of Alexander the Great without success. He was the disciple of Sheikh Abu Abbas El Mursi, who was the disciple of Abu El Hasan El Shadali, who is known to be a servant of God. 07 Jan 2021. Carthage (which largely became so prosperous owing to the sack of Tyre) was still a young port town when Alexandria began to thrive. Mark, Joshua J. [18], In 619, Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians. The first Ptolemy began the project, and the second Ptolemy (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) completed it, at a total cost of 800 talents. Finally, in 305 BC, Ptolemy declared himself Pharaoh as Ptolemy I Soter ("Savior") and moved his capital to Alexandria. The greatest engineer and mathematician of his day, Hero (also known as Heron, 10-70 CE) was born and lived in Alexandria. Ancient accounts are extremely numerous and varied, and much influenced by subsequent developments. The second largest Egyptian city, after Cairo, and one of the largest ports on the Mediterranean coast, Alexandria was a major centre of civilization in the ancient world, controlling commerce between Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean, and has continued throughout its long history to act as a vital crossing point for merchants and their trade on the maritime routes between Asia and Europe. The Christian Byzantine Empire under Heraclius re-claimed the city in 628 CE but lost it to the invading Arab Muslims under Caliph Umar in 641 CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic centre of learning (Library of Alexandria), but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian. It is a commercial port for general cargo and phosphates. One of the more sober descriptions, given by the historian Arrian, tells how Alexander undertook to lay out the city's general plan, but lacking chalk or other means, resorted to sketching it out with grain. All that now lies between that point and the modern "Ras al-Tin" quarter is built on the silt which gradually widened and obliterated this mole. Fare is generally L.E. Under Augustus’ reign there were disputes between Jews and pagans and, as Christianity grew in popularity, the Christians added to the public unrest.